Answer to all questions

  1. Balancer chromosomes in Drosophila : How do they work and why are they used?
  2. Explain the difference between forward and reverse genetics and how are they used in C. elegans
  3. You want to express a 200 amino acid residue long protein in cultured neurons. Which virus vector(s) (AAV, retrovirus, or Lentivirus) would you use and why. What if the protein was 2000 amino acid residues long? Would you use a different vector for 200 aar protein when transfecting a large brain are in vivo?
  4. You want to study expression of factors A and B in developing mouse intestine using immunostaining on paraffin sections. Primary antibody for factor A is produced in mouse and primary antibody for factor B is produced in Rabbit. You have the following fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies in your disposal: Donkey anti goat 488 / Donkey anti rabbit 488 / Goat anti rat 488 / Donkey anti rabbit 568 / Donkey anti mouse 568 / Donkey anti chicken 647. Which secondary antibodies would you choose and why? What would you use for blocking and why?


Answer to all questions

  1. Explain briefly the following concepts and how they can be used to study gene function in mouse a) Cre-LoxP system b)Reporter alleles
  2. Describe methods that can be used to manipulate and/or investigate C.elegans gene functions.
  3. Explain briefly why, how and at what step in the immunohistocemical staining procedure you would use: a) Sodium-citrate buffer pH 6.0 b) Blocking c) Xylene
  4. Advantages and disadvantages of tissue (organ) culture.
  5. Describe different steps in the development of Drosophila Malphigian tubules, and the main genes that control their development.


Answer all questions

  1. Explain shortly why, how and at what step in the immunohistochemical staining procedure you would use:
    1. Sodium Citrate-buffer pH 6,0
    2. Blocking
    3. Parallel section
  2. The “Herbal National parent's union” claims that chlorine in drinking water makes babies' brain smaller. Design an in vitro experiment to sudy the effect of soluble chlorine to the percentage of developing neural stem cells
  3. What are factors that can affect:
    1. the effiency of transgene delivery via electroporation
    2. the survival of the embryo after the manipulations
  4. Balancer chromosomes Drosophila: How they work and why they are used?
  5. What are the factors that affect viral tropism and transgene expression
  6. Give examples how tissues (organs) in culture can be manipulated.